21st century and beyond



The 21st century has given us technologies that the ancient Greeks and Romans would have never even dreamt about, we now have these tiny mobile phones which connect to the internet with a single touch, medicine has advanced dramatically and we have touch screen phones, laptops and tablets. 21st century saw the world takeover from Apple, led by the mighty Steve Jobs.

We now have advanced transport, new cars, buses, coaches ECT which have increased not only in number but in how well they perform.

Another thing that we have in the 21st century is 3D, CGI and more! The introduction to 3D was mostly in cinemas but recently they have combined that technology to be used on gaming and everyday TV. You can now watch your favourite sports in HD 3D which is high definition 3D.


Now we get to one of the biggest impacts on our lifestyle that ever happened in the 21st century, which is Social Networking for example Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Myspace and many, many more; but how can a mere website change a way someone lives their life? Well because of facebook friends could speak through that, send happy birthday wishes, access mini games, see pictures, add pictures ECT agreed it still doesnt sound like that could change a way someone lives, but compared to the days where to see or speak to our friends we would physically have to get up and get out to meet them, also where we use to send cards to our friends, no need do it on Facebook for FREE! 

Well now we come to the language we have started to use, ‘OMG CBA M8 YOLO’ now if your an elderly person, or someone who has no interest in the internet you might not know what this means, that actually means ‘ Oh My God Cant Be Asked Mate, You Only Live once’ is this new generation getting lazier or just smarter? 

So we come to mobile phones which in the 21st century are always getting better faster and more reliable, they are always on which allow people to get in touch most of the time so your never unable to be contacted. 

There is so much we have that it would take me forever to write it all out, therefore I am going to write a short list of the things that I personally use in the 21st century: PS3, Mac Book Pro, HD TV, Cannon DSLR, Editing Software (FCP) Digital watches and so much more! All these things have become part of my life and i’m sure if you are reading this you can relate to this. 

Online movie streaming, now I know for a FACT that millions of people around the world everyday access the internet to watch movies that are in cinema, on DVD and in some rare case not released in cinema yet! Now what this does is destroy the cinema market and DVD sales therefore people who make these films are not getting as much money, but who would pay to watch a film when they can watch it for free? Is it wrong? With the prices they charge maybe not!

Another thing I feel the need to mention is the ever growing services of the internet, it is always getting better, faster and less viruses. 

We have touch based technology such as iPhones, iPods, iPads which for the older generation is too much to handle in some cases, but for the younger generation these are brilliant! I can vouch for that!

So where do I think we will be in about 50 years time? I honestly could not imagine what could top this century, but I am sure they will as the world is forever evolving so is the technologies and as the 21st century has proven, there are no longer any limits.  



20th Century

We come to the mighty 20th century where we are at our peak or are we? surely after all that the Renaissance gave us we could not expand anymore? Well we did. Heres how! 


The British Empire was now at its peak during the early 20th century affecting over a fourth of the worlds population. It was because of their great riches and highly trained armies that the British Empire was as strong as they were, in fact they were even greater than the ancient Roman Empire. 

So why was the British Empire so powerful and successful? Well because of money and the powerful army? Well yes but not exactly because Britain had not just relied on their army to control a vast amount of land and money, they relied on their politics and trading schemes to become so successful.   It was also so good because they were making the world a better place, they were invented new technologies all the time and different ways of using them.


So how did the great empire end? It was mainly due to the WW2 as Britain would fight off countries they could no longer keep control of so many countries and were forced to surrender the land. Also the UK( United kingdom) was financially exhausted and heavily in debt to the U.S, whom capitalised on the opportunity and threatened to abandon the empire by threat of economic  collapse.


World war 1 1914-1918 a tragic 4 years with millions of people dying, but ironically a huge step for  many nations to increase their technologies, because the world was at war countries expanded their warfare tech and kept it to themselves because of that when the war ended the technology that we had created for war was then used for other stuff, such as the medicines that were created to cure illness and pain. 


Then we have the great depression which meant the world was in a stand still and recovering from the war, this was because of the amount of debt most countries were in and their nations were rationing foods. This was though a great time for British cinema as there was no TV and everyone was depressed people would come to the cinema to get a feel of escapism just for that short amount of time everything in that cinema would be happy. 


Unfortunately not long after, WW2 began in 1939-1945 which had the world in chaos this war lasted 6 horrible years and it was the German Nazis that had the world on their knees with their leader Adolf Hitler on top over seeing the destruction. It was only until 1 brave nation stood up in 1 last heroic stand, Great Britain a small Island with a small army, but this was the highest trained, most skilful army in the world, with the help of Britain the world was once again restored to peace, but only after 60 million people had died, over 2.5% of the worlds population. 


Just as WW1 gave us new medicines WW2 gave us so much more, in the long 6 years that the world was fighting we had created mobile telecommunications and so much more! Mobile telecommunications was used by the army to communicate and tell each other information but as the war ended, inventors decided to use it for everyday life, now communication in Britain could not have been easier.


Then you have the cold war 1947-1991 lasting a huge 44 years! Even so this was a 44 year battle not much actually happened as it was pretty much a stand still between Russia and America, both threatening to use nuclear warfare which would end civilisation as we know it. The cold war inspired many writers and movie directors to create amazing movies, the one that comes to mind is 007 movies.


So we come to the creation of film in 1894 this was a great invention as through the great depression film actually helped people escape from their dreadful lives. Thomas Edison is responsible for the first film to be made using the kinetoscope, this was the first ever movie to be copyrighted. 


Then we have stop motion animation in 1899 created by J. Stuart Blackton. He was a Hollywood film maker and he made the movie Enchanted Drawing which had the first ever stop motion animation sequence and it was because of this he is considered to be the ‘Father’ of American animation.


In 1907,1920 and 1931 full colour photos were invented, Radio was invented and so was paperback books. These all had huge affects, the full colour photographs changed photography forever by allowing us to see colour though the images, this also made this whole photography process much more expensive, Radio was another communication method but it was much more informative and was used to tell the nation/world what the latest news was. Then we have the first ever paperback book which was great for readers but was still quite expensive. 


Then we have television created in 1950 and available for the public, television was now a main way to get across entertainment and news therefore cinema views went down. 


Then we have the information age which is also known as the Computer age or the Digital age, this was the age where people could send information freely and access information instantly though the usage of computers. 


Then from the Computer age we have the World Wide Web, created by Sir Tim Berners-Lee is used by millions of people everyday it is a way to send information, access information, view videos, work, communicate and pretty much do what ever you want with it. 

Renaissance 1500-1800AD

It was in this era that we really revolutionised our technologies and arts, from the Mono Lisa to gun powder we excelled dramatically, here are some of this things that were given to us in the 1500-1800AD era:


Architecture was always there as man have been creating stuff for centuries but it was in this era that we could create buildings and palaces on a massive scale. This style of architecture was first created in Florence and quickly spread through other Italian cities, it was then picked up by the rest of Europe and quickly became popular. These building were inspired by the works of the Ancient Greeks and Romans early art works.


Three dimensional art was introduced, compared to the old medieval flat arts this was a huge leap in art. This also represented wealth. This kind of art mainly focused on the human these were called ‘portraits’ rather than focusing on religious arts. Also the discovery of perspective was a huge leap as that managed to create a whole new view on art.


At this point in time there was a return to antiquity, the classical civilisations of Greece and Rome.



During the black death the rich was hit as bad as the poor therefore when everything returned back to normal families with wealth became the strongest by buying the newest technologies such as gun powder, bows and the deadly cannons. If you was able to buy these you were a force to be reckoned with. Due to these new weapons knights and castles lost rule.



Due to the rise of science and technology people such as Kepler, Leonardo Da Vinci and Copernicus learnt that the world was spherical and that the planet was in fact not the centre of the universe and that God does not control everything. This was the age of enlightenment and Humanism.


This was also the start to freelance trading men such as Marco Polo traveled through Asia and Europe with his Father and Uncle which is how he learnt to become a top merchant he returned 24 years later to only be imprisoned but told his stories to his cell mate. Once he was free he became wealthy through the open trading market and being a top merchandiser. His journey inspired the famous Christopher Columbus.


So we come to the mighty Shakespeare, a man who took theatrical arts to a new level, due to Shakespeare thousands of not only common folk but the richest and mightiest would take time to see his theatrical master pieces. This was called the art for the people as it would bring together the smartest and dumbest, strongest and weakest, richest and poorest people to see his plays. This was the rise of theatrical art.


1440 AD The rise of the news paper and all thanks to a company called ‘ Gutenberg Printing Press’ which created reading material at little effort and very quickly which led to books to be of less value. They created this with a moveable type, unlike what had previously been done in the whole of history they did not have to hand write anything. Without realising they had changed not only the nation but eventually the world.

He who first shortened the labor of copyists by device of movable types was disbanding hired armies, and cashiering most kings and senates, and creating a whole new democratic world: he had invented the art of printing.
(Thomas Carlyle, Sartor Resartus, 1833)


We then come to 1712 AD and he rise of the modern world this all started with the steam engine, the steam power allowed Britain to become the work house for the world making Britain one of the richest countries on the globe. 80% of people were farmers today less than 1% are now farmers all thanks to the steam powered engine. Many people would start working in factories at the age of 10-12. Thanks to this the common people saw a huge increase in their income and now they were able to start becoming part of the society that they had no part in before. Their living standards got better due to an increase in water supply thank to steam power and thanks to all the brand new machines that we had invented. This was a turning point in history as there was not 1 person who was not affected by this great change.

“For the first time in history, the living standards of the masses of ordinary people have begun to undergo sustained growth … Nothing remotely like this economic behavior has happened before. –Robert E. Lucas, Jr.


1800 AD was the year of electricity and thanks to Thomas Edison, due to this discovery we were able to create light without the means of fire. This would clearly be a huge discovery not just for a nation, but for the world.  Not only did he create the first light bulb, but he created the first electrical battery for a car, the first motion picture and a stock ticker.


1833 AD introduced the world to the first Zeotrope which allowed us to animate still pictures and 1840 AD introduced the world to the first still picture camera.


1870 AD First telephone and the start of mass communication which allowed the world to communicate without having to get a paper and pen all they had to do was pick up the phone, which led to mail factories to lose money.





The Middle Ages


The Middle Ages or as some may call it the Dark Ages and for good reason, because this was the fall of the mighty Roman Empire. What this did was stop the rate of advancements that the Romans were doing especially in technology. 

Something that did arise from the Dark Ages is the mass increase in the amount of religious beliefs, particularly Christians. People would spend a lot of time in churches reading the Bible and praying to their God(s) which left hardly anything to be recorded hence why it is called the Dark Ages because there was no evidence that anything amazing happened.

As a mass amount of the people were going to Churches the people who owned the Churches became very wealthy, so there was still a lower and higher class in Dark Ages, another thing which let the increased rate of intelligence and evolvement slow down dramatically was that there was a lack of education as everyone was only being educated by the Bible. 

So what did advance, well the same thing that has been increasing since Cavemen, art and culture the churches were decorated beautifully and the arts in general improved dramatically.


Then we get to the terrible Black Death caused by the plague which was from the world being ridiculously unhygenic causing a virus which caused death. This crossed throughout the world and it is said over 33 MILLION people died in Europe and 100 MILLION worldwide, an estimate of 30-60% of the worlds population gone.


So what caused the plague to stop, well the amount of people to spread it was decreased from the amount of deaths, but it is said that the great London fire caused all the virus in that area to be  vaccinated. How? Well the fleas and other rodents were a massive cause of diseases and as the fire exterminated a huge amount of the Rats and Fleas died. Also not to mention the fire caused all of the waste in the streets to be burnt. It was like a new beginning a second chance for humanity.


The Roman Empire


So here come the Romans, what did they give us? Paths/roads, military, money(coins) formalised alphabet(simplified) aqueducts.

‘All roads lead to Rome’ thats the saying and for good reason, Romans were the first to create paths which outstandingly still stand today. Romans created the roads so that it would be easier to transfer goods but more importantly to move their military quicker and more efficiently, this allowed them to go on and dominate and control a vast amount of land from Britain, Egypt, Asia Africa and so on before eventually falling in 430 AD.


The Roman military, what did they do for us? They were the first army to use tactics and strategies to win wars. By doing that they managed to become the most powerful force in that era. They used the latest technology such as steel armour, swords and shields.


Romans gave us the first type of money with the Roman ‘king’ engraved into the coins which would let the Roman king constantly be remembered by his people. There were also messages on the coins which some say were for reassurance to the people.


The Romans did a very great deal for us, but one of the most important things they did was simplify the alphabet, they gave us an easier understanding alphabet compared to the old Egyptian hieroglyphics. In fact now days we still use the Roman language to an extent, for instance the French, Italian and Spanish languages known for their sexy and attractive accents comes from the Romans hence ‘ Romance’ language.


The Romans gave us an efficient source of clean water by building these huge water transportation systems called Aqueducts, what this did was give them more time to build on their military and empire also I am sure that the rate of illness caused from dirty water dropped dramatically.


In conclusion the Romans were the point where the human race’s intelligence and abilities to create was increasing at an amazing rate, this is because now that there was some kind of Empire that meant the people who would normally be defending themselves from bandits, walking miles for water and spending more and more time trying to find food would have this all given to them, they would of course have their role in this empire such as someone might be told to be in charge of the food but overall they had less to do, also they were being educated and from this they used this extra time to evolve as a race and start creating amazing things.

Ancient Greece 500-300 BC


Ancient Greece gave us amphi-theatres , sculpture art and the ancient Greek Gods.

Amphi-theatres were created by the Greeks to use for their entertainment, it was created in a way that all of the sound would stay in side the area. You will see this in the picture.


As you can see, they were MASSIVE and guess what? This exact format is still being used to date, that is because the format is extremely clever and will be continued to be used for years to come.


Sculpture! The amazing detail that the Greeks could put into these amazing statues was incredible, but what and why did they do this? To tell a story, to tell their story and mostly to be remembered.

They believed that if you make a very accurate representation of that person through sculpturing that person would be at peace after death and would not haunt anyone.


Gods, Greek Gods; like the Egyptians they had their own not just one god, but many.

They used the skills in sculpturing to create huge creations of Gods that they believed in, they believed doing so would keep them safe.

Ancient Egypt 3000-300 BC


Ancient Egyptians, the creator of Pyramids, hieroglyphics and the first race to create on a large, very, very large scale works of art, but not just random art! These incredible stone carved pictures  tell a story.


The Egyptians wanted a permanent record, because as you would imagine stories for hundreds and thousands of years were told and naturally changed according to who told it. So the Egyptians though they would carve their stories into stone so that is was their exact story that was told, how they wanted it.


The Egyptians were the first to create what we call an alphabet, yes the first kind of alphabet is the ancient hieroglyphics, again why did they create these? To keep track of events, to make sure that the stories they wrote were untouched and told how they wanted it to be.


Amun, Anubis, Aten, Atum and Bastet just five of the amazing 29 Gods that the Egyptians believed in, to an extent that they created massive art works of these Gods. These are the first records of Gods that we have found through history.



The Egyptians were the first race to create paper, they created this from using papyrus plants which were easy to get as they grew in vast amounts along the river. For more information on how they created the paper please visit :